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Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab > Volume 29(2); 2024 > Article
DOI:    Published online January 24, 2024.
Long-term endocrine sequelae after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents
Soojin Hwang1  , Yena Lee2  , Ji-Hee Yoon1  , Ja Hye Kim1  , Hyery Kim1  , Kyung-Nam Koh1  , Ho Joon Im1  , Han-Wook Yoo3  , Jin-Ho Choi1 
1Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Pediatrics, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea.
3Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea
Address for correspondence:  Jin-Ho Choi
Received: February 16, 2023   Revised: March 21, 2023   Accepted: March 29, 2023
As the survival rate from pediatric cancers has increased significantly with advances in treatment modalities, long-term endocrine complications have also risen. This study investigated the frequencies and risks of endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
This study included 200 pediatric patients who underwent HSCT. Clinical and endocrinological findings were collected retrospectively. The median follow-up duration after HSCT was 14 years.
Endocrine complications occurred in 135 patients (67.5%). Children who underwent HSCT at pubertal age (n=100) were at higher risk of endocrine complications than those who received it at prepubertal age (79% vs. 56%, P=0.001). The most common complication was hypogonadism (40%), followed by dyslipidemia (22%). Short stature and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in the prepubertal group, whereas hypogonadism and osteoporosis were more common in the pubertal group. Being female, pubertal age at HSCT, and glucocorticoid use were predictors of an increased risk for any complication. Radiation exposure increased the risk of short stature and hypothyroidism. Hypogonadism was significantly associated with being female, pubertal age at HSCT, and high-dose radiation. Pubertal age at HSCT also increased the risks of osteoporosis and dyslipidemia.
This study demonstrates that long-term endocrine complications are common after HSCT in children and adolescents. Age at HSCT is a critical factor for endocrine complications after HSCT. These findings suggest that surveillance strategies for endocrine complications in childhood cancer survivors should be specified according to age at HSCT.
Keywords: Children, Endocrine complication, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation


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