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Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab > Volume 29(2); 2024 > Article
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6065/apem.2346162.081    Published online January 2, 2024.
Safety and tolerability of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in children and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Lakshmi Nagendra1  , Deep Dutta2  , Harish Bukkasagar Girijashankar3  , Deepak Khandelwal4  , Tejal Lathia5  , Meha Sharma6 
1Department of Endocrinology, JSS Medical College, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, India
2Department of Endocrinology, Center for Endocrinology Diabetes Arthritis & Rheumatism (CEDAR) Superspeciality Healthcare, Dwarka, New Delhi, India
3Department of Anaesthesiology, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, India
4Department of Endocrinology, Khandelwal Diabetes, Thyroid & Endocrinology Clinic, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi, India
5Department of Endocrinology, Apollo Hospitals, Navi Mumbai, India
6Department of Rheumatology, Center for Endocrinology Diabetes Arthritis & Rheumatism (CEDAR) Superspeciality Healthcare, Dwarka, New Delhi, India
Address for correspondence:  Deep Dutta
Email: deepdutta2000@yahoo.com
Received: July 15, 2023   Revised: August 30, 2023   Accepted: October 4, 2023
Abstract
Purpose
Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been evaluated in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and several other nondiabetic conditions. Potential tolerability issues have prevented the routine use of SGLT2i in children with diabetes. However, no meta-analysis to date has evaluated the safety and tolerability of SGLT2i in children. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to address this knowledge gap.
Methods
Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case control, and cohort studies involving children receiving SGLT2i in the intervention-arm. Primary outcome was occurrence of treatment emergent adverse events (TAEs). Secondary outcomes were evaluation of glycemic efficacy and occurrence of severe adverse events (SAEs), hypoglycemia, ketosis, genital or urinary infections, and any other adverse events.
Results
From the 27 articles initially screened, data from 4 RCTs (258 children) were analyzed. In children with T2DM, occurrence of TAEs (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93–3.36; P=0.08; I2=0%), SAEs (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.08–2.54; P=0.37; I2=0%), ketoacidosis (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.01–8.37; P=0.50), urinary tract infections (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 0.44–12.50; P=0.32; I2=0%), and severe hypoglycemia (OR, 4.47; 95% CI, 0.21–96.40; P=0.34) were comparable among the SGLTi group and placebo. Compared to placebo, T2DM children receiving SGLTi had significantly lower glycosylated hemoglobin at 24–26 weeks (mean difference [MD], -0.79%; 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.26; P=0.004; I2=0%). In T1DM children, β-hydroxybutyrate levels were significantly higher in the SGLTi group than the placebo group (MD, 0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.05–0.17; P=0.0005; I2=53%). In T1DM, there was not a single report of an SAE, ketoacidosis, or severe hypoglycemia in either the placebo or treatment groups, but time-in-range was considerably greater in the SGLT2i group than the placebo group (68%±6% vs. 50%±13%, P<0.001).
Conclusion
SGLT2i use in children and young adults appears to be both safe and tolerable based on our meta-analyses and review of the literature.
Keywords: Empagliflozin, Dapaglifozin, Systematic review, Child, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Type 1 diabetes mellitus


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