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Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6065/apem.2346182.091    [Accepted] Published online June 5, 2024.
New onset diabetes in children during the COVID-19 Pandemic: an assessment of biomarkers and psychosocial risk factors at play in Mississippi
Josephine Stout1,2  , Naznin Dixit2, Simeen Pasha2, Anju Sukumaran2, Ali Kemal Topaloglu3, Mary K. Armstrong2, Padma Garg2, Cynthia Karlson2, John T. Bates2, Md Abu Yusuf Ansari2, Fariha Kamran2
1Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA
2University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
3Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Address for correspondence:  Josephine Stout
Email: jstout2@uams.edu
Received: August 12, 2023   Revised: January 9, 2024   Accepted: February 6, 2024
Abstract
Purpose
The COVID-19 pandemic has shown a rise in pediatric diabetes. Studies have indicated an increased likelihood of children with COVID-19 infection developing diabetes. Our objective was to assess not only for an increase in pediatric diabetes at our hospital and identify possible risk factors but also to correlate psychosocial changes resulting from the pandemic with new-onset diabetes during this time.
Methods
We analyzed data from 58 children aged 1-18 years admitted to our hospital with new-onset diabetes between March 2020 and December 2021, including inflammatory biomarkers and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Ab), as well as results of a lifestyle questionnaire.
Results
Average monthly hospital admissions for new-onset diabetes rose from 10 to 18 with the start of the pandemic. Of the 58 children in our analysis, 33% had positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG Ab, 31% had type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and 62% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). More than half (54%) were in DKA. Those with T2DM were older, majority African American, had higher median BMI percentiles, and lower Vitamin D levels. There were no significant correlations between any psychosocial risk factors and either diabetes type or SARS-CoV2 Ab status.
Conclusions
Despite the increased incidence of new-onset diabetes among children in Mississippi during the pandemic, this study was unable to demonstrate significant correlations between COVID-19 infection and new-onset diabetes. This study highlighted the correlation between increased BMI and type 2 diabetes, which speaks to the significant problem of obesity and diabetes in Mississippi and the need for further research.
Keywords: Pediatrics, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pediatric obesity
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